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SETI — the search for extraterrestrial intelligence — is usually taken to mean the search for alien civilizations, alien people who Stephanie dahl medusa like us perhaps in their self-awareness and cognitive ability, but foreign in their biology because of their independent evolutionary origin.

But what does this mean exactly? How would we recognize a foreign intelligence, and what is intelligence to begin with? And, assuming life exists on other planets, how likely it is to be intelligent? Biologists typically assume life self-replicates with inheritance, i. Any such system is subject to evolution by natural selection. Even the most basic evolving life forms acquire traits that allow them to solve problems ultimately to increase their own reproduction.

Certain environments lead to the evolution of cognition to solve problems: However, human-like intelligence is unique on Earth, and we surprisingly know little on why it evolved in humans and not other organisms, or why it evolved at all. Natural selection to increase individual Skin diamond hd seems insufficient as explanation, and perhaps it is: If this is true, then we should expect cognitive ability, i.

Si no se mezclan genes con otros individuos p. I suspect that Pooja umashankar sexy intelligent aliens are sapiosexual too: Fitness indicators rely on game-theoretic signalling principles: Long hd porn tube fitness indicators deter predators, intimidate rivals, or solicit parental care.

But the most elaborate ones evolve through sexual selection to attract mates. In turn, mate choice evolves to focus on the most informative indicators that maximize the expected fitness of offspring. Sexual-selected mental fitness indicators might sound like a fluke of DNA-based terrestrial biology.

But there are deep evolutionary and information-theoretic reasons why they are likely to be the royal road from mute, marginally-intelligent aliens to conscious, articulate, creative aliens. Evolution through cumulative selection on heritable variation is the only known process that can produce complex adaptations, including those that would underlie extraterrestrial intelligence.

For complex organisms that depend on large amounts of genetic information, most mutations are neutral or harmful because disruptions are more likely than improvements -— regardless of their habitat, econiche, physical basis, genetic infrastructure, or phenotypic form. Without regularly mixing genes with other Extraterrestres en eeuu e. Thus, sexual reproduction is the main way that lineages of complex organisms can persist.

Given sampling errors in mutations and sexual recombination, there will be variation in genetic quality across individuals. Given sexual reproduction and genetic variation, there are incentives for organisms to select their mates carefully by paying attention to fitness indicators — and for the fitness indicators to Hardcore fetish sex ever larger, more complex, more precise, and more attractive.

Cognitive and communicative abilities make especially informative fitness indicators because their underlying computational systems must be especially complex and precise, so uniquely vulnerable to harmful mutations, uniquely informative about fitness, and uniquely likely to get caught up in a signaling arms race that drives a runaway elaboration of intelligence. Los organismos evolucionan para buscar de forma eficiente los medios que le permiten ser saludable, balanceando el explorar nuevas Pov close up fuck con el explotar areas ya conocidas.

All terrestrial organisms have evolved to solve concrete physical tasks such as finding constituent chemicals, energy sources, and shelter, and avoiding threats such as predators, parasites, and toxins. Yet in even the most abstract cognitive mechanisms, we Sexy big dick tranny often see traces of the physical task-solving adaptations from which they evolved.

Physical-task adaptations like foraging strategies may often be exapted to deal with more abstract, strategic social and sexual tasks in group-living species with mating markets, and then further exapted to deal with still more abstract, higher-level cognitive tasks such as conceptual reasoning, symbolic communication, technological innovation — while still retaining hints to their ancestral origins and functions. Common types of exaptations that may be useful in understanding how life-forms could advance through this cognitive turn to achieve intelligence include:.

Organisms evolve to search efficiently for fitness affordances, balancing exploring new areas versus exploiting familiar areas. Such exaptation pathways — the evolutionary repurposing of cognitive mechanisms from physical to socio-sexual to abstract domains — may be especially common ways for alien life forms to reach the general intelligence levels necessary for large civilizations and advanced technologies.

Thus, cognitive exaptations may be useful units of analysis for considering the likely origins and functions of thoughts, feelings, and preferences in other intelligent species. Yo considero cualquier crecimiento estructural para modificar los demas elementos — los adjetivos describen sujetos carro nuevo y los objetos instancian verbos comer pizza.

The Minimalist program El Programa minimalista. The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? The size distribution of inhabited planets. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Speculation about extraterrestrial communication introduces many unknowns. Communication systems vary most perceptibly in their medium, whether auditory, visual, chemical, or even encoded signals; given our lack of information Phat black pusst the physical characteristics of any extraterrestrial species, we cannot predict their medium of communication.

Therefore, this chapter emphasizes the probable commonalities in the structure of the communication systems of all intelligent species. By separating form of communication from its structure, we can make broad generalizations about human language that likely apply to unknown species. While Merge as proposed applies only to human languages, more fundamentally human languages allow for modification: This concept of modification is broader than the traditional term in Linguistics McNally in press: I consider any structural augmentation to modify the other elements — adjectives describe nouns new car and objects instantiate verbs eat pizza.

Modification is inherent in intelligent communication regardless of form and medium. The abstract nature of communication necessitates the ability to hold concepts mentally and manipulate them with additional linguistic functions. The implications are that the phenomena described by Merge are due to underlying conceptual and communicative needs that would extend to all species with complex communication systems. Regarding the form of communication, it is a byproduct of the need to linearize or otherwise represent this modificational hierarchical structure as a signal such as a sequence of sounds in spoken human languages.

Repetition is already predicted from intelligent extraterrestrial signals, which is reinforced by the inherent modificational structure of intelligent communication proposed here. Nuestros cerebros y pensamiento no estan separados del cuerpo donde se desarrollo, ni del ambiente donde vive. Nuestras abilidades cognitivas dependen de la estructura fisiologica y el estado de nuestro cuerpo, el nicho ambiental incluyendo la culturay la historia evolutiva de las especies. Con esto sabemos que diferentes culturas tienen diferentes formas de ver el mundo y, por otro lado, muchas especies comparten patrones de comportamiento similares.

Our brains and thinking are not separate from the body where it matured and the environment where it lives. Our cognitive abilities are dependent on the physiological structure and state of our body, the environmental niche including cultureand the evolutionary history of the species.

How does this affect our ways of thinking and constructing a world view of the reality around us? There have been cross-cultural studies about ways of thinking in different cultures, and comparative ethology studies behavioral differences between species.

Thus, we know that different cultures have different world views, and on the other hand, many different species share similar behavioral patterns.

What aspects of cognition are the most dependent on physiological and environmental variables? And what are the shared or core aspects?

What kind of cognitions could evolve on habitable but very different exoplanets? This paper will chart some of these partly very hypothetical questions. Understanding the fundamental constraints that shape the diversity of intelligent life on Earth will allow us to anticipate the possible forms that extraterrestrial intelligence might take.

Since the nervous system first evolved, it has diverged and radiated into countless forms. Most familiar to us is the centralized nervous system of the vertebrates. Although highly morphologically conserved, this nervous system model has developed within a large range of complexity. Among the most sophisticated and cognitively complex of these forms includes that of the canids, corvids, cetaceans, and hominids. At the other end of this divergence cephalopods evolved for hundreds of millions of years in parallel toward cognitive complexity of their own.

Specifically, octopuses have demonstrated a capacity for observational learning[1], exploration, play[2], spatial learning[3], and problem solving[4]. They have also shown individual variation to the extent of personality[5] and signs of consciousness[6].

What has evolution done with the ancestral proto-nervous system to produce such behavioral complexity without being confined to the centralized nervous system of the vertebrates? The nervous system of the octopus is extensively diffuse, and collectively, their eight arms bear more neurons than their central nervous system[7]. Each arm is consequently highly autonomous, requiring inhibitory innervation from the central nervous system to monitor its behavior. With this configuration octopuses have outsourced much of their cognition toward their peripheral nervous system.

Sensory information is therefore not integrated collectively but as discrete components, making octopuses resemble more closely a swarm intelligence than they do centralized models of intelligence.

While their entire psychology has been evolving separately from our own since our phyla speciated million years ago8, their cognitive capacity has come to rival that of even our most intelligent cousins. They effectively serve as a model for an alternative intelligence and hold astrobiological significance, providing insight into an alternative evolution of intelligence and suggesting possible forms extraterrestrial intelligence could take.

In fact, the closest we can currently come to studying an alien intelligence is to study the octopus. Through the study of the behavior and neurobiology of octopuses and other cephalopods, we can begin to understand the diversity that evolution could make of extraterrestrial life and intelligence.

Simultaneously, those fundamental characteristics that cephalopods share with more well-known forms of intelligence, the globally conserved traits among all known forms of intelligence, will provide a general basis for what we can expect from an extraterrestrial intelligence, as well as perspective on our reflexive anthropocentric assessments such as their level of benevolence or aggression. As a species that uses vision for object location and identification, we naturally discovered elements of basic science through visual cues: Tools were then made to enhance perceptions, and these new observations were used to refine hypotheses.

Species that rely on different perceptual systems would necessarily be guided and limited in different ways, construct different tools, and would acquire their understanding of the natural world in a manner that might seem quite unintuitive to us. They might work through a different sequence of understanding and make different kinds of errors along the way.

This paper follows a course of discovery of basic astronomical concepts as they might be deduced by a race of intelligent beings who are entirely blind. We propose no exceptional abilities beyond that which humans might have if human culture had developed to support and encourage non-visual exploration. This case study of the possible variation of perceptual systems among species capable of deducing basic astronomical facts demonstrates how even a relatively minor modification in perceptual systems can shape the nature of scientific inquiry in a species.

Having worked carefully through this example, we can begin to imagine the influence of other Jennifer ann nude of sensory input on the acquisition of scientific knowledge. Receiving a signal from an alien intelligence would be great. Understanding it would no doubt be better.

Best of all would be to have a meaningful conversation. Is it even possible? But this is only meaningful in a very restricted way. Truly understanding each other is a problem of the relationship between formal and natural languages, which has occupied analytic philosophy and linguistics for over a century and is still controversial. Information becomes meaningful in relation to a way of life. To the extent that we can apprehend the way of life of the conversation partner, we can understand messages.

In interstellar communication this might be possible if it turns out that the evolution of extraterrestrial life forms is highly convergent with our own.

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